Monday, July 27, 2020

Giving Up the Quest for Literary Hipsterdom

Giving Up the Quest for Literary Hipsterdom This is a guest post by Aram Mrjoian,  a writer of various fiction, online essays, and daily haikus. He is an avid reader and publishing professional. Follow him on Twitter:  @AMrjoian575 _________________________ I recently walked into Kaleidoscope Books in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and asked if they had a copy of either of the two editions of Blast!. Kaleidoscope is a small place, crammed to the ceilings with stacks of collectible comics in sooty plastic wrap and moldy tomes with broken spines, with a small island desk buried in the middle, harboring the one man that works there immovably. “Ha, if you have six hundred bucks.” The guy replied. This number did not surprise me. In fact, part of me was wondering why I bothered to ask in the first place. I knew the price would be exorbitant and unaffordable, but I wanted to prove to him the I was initiated. I hoped to demonstrate I was more than another wandering student or feigning hipster looking for a cheap copy of Ulysses or A Moveable Feast. (Not to say there is anything wrong with that, I own used copies of both of those books.) Mainly I wanted to prove to the storeowner that I had some knowledge of the obscure books he exchanged with antediluvian college professors and wealthy collectors. I wanted to be taken seriously despite not being his usual clientele. I blame this desire notably on my friend Tom. When we were in college, frequenting Curious Book Shop more so than our English class, he pushed me towards the lesser-known works of canonized writers that we read mostly to goad our own egos. This resulted in a self-serving advantage when discussing books, primarily amongst other English majors and youthful pseudo-intelligentsia. When someone brought up the eerie perversity of Lolita, we were quick to add our own thoughts on Nabokov’s infamous novel, but would then counter with, “Have you read Invitation To A Beheading?” When asked about Henry Miller I would bring up The Colossus Of Maroussi before Tropic Of Cancer. Wyndham Lewis became one of our personal heroes, and I often talked about Sylvia Beach as if I were her close friend. In retrospect, the word sophomoric comes glaringly to mind. Our imagined erudition was by all means arrogant and narcissistic, but it eventually served a humbling purpose. In time, I think both Tom and I reached the realization that we were digging ourselves into a hole, creating an abyss of references and proclaimed knowledge that essentially led nowhere. At the end of the day, we both read because we loved learning, not to make an ostentatious display. One day I sat down for coffee with an older friend/mentor named Donnie, a man of immense book knowledge, and he mentioned Donald Barthelme and Thomas Pynchon in passing as we conversed. An instant sense of panic surged through me when I realized I’d never read anything by either of these writers. I immediately found that I had turned reading into a competition, a hipster platitude that has become obscenely prevalent as of late. We create an arsenal of cultural references and use them to apotheosize ourselves. Luckily, the moment I came to this conclusion, I could start reading with a new perspective, regaining the same curious passion I used to have when my parents read to me before bed when I was small. I saw that the only reason I would speciously mislead people into believing I’ve read more than I have in actuality or bombastically articulate vague literary ideas is to hide my own insecurities. That in many ways the culture of reading can quickly be smeared from a communal and pivotal way to learn and be transformed into an isolating and exclusive way to socially expound personal intelligence. To put it simply, I got lost. I forgot that reading should be a way of unifying people rather than a way to show-off. In the book I’m currently reading, The Recognitions by William Gaddis, there is a scene in which a character named Otto walks around a crowded party and keeps making the comment, “I’d say he was a latent heterosexual”, hoping that someone will acknowledge his cleverness and wit. At times, I groaned audibly as I read this scene, with the understanding that I used to do the same thing. I used to roam around parties and want my brilliance to be recognized. I would talk about books venomously and vituperate in some obscure hopes of being elevated amongst my peers. It was the moment I destroyed this reflex that I could at last sit down, relax, and regain my genuine love of reading.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Comparing Women in The Bell Jar and Enormous Changes at...

Exploitation of Women Exposed in The Bell Jar and Enormous Changes at the Last Minute In their manifesto, the Redstockings argued that the relationship between men and women was a class relationship, and that the men repressed and controlled the women. The women were objects, and the men owned them. They said that, as a class, women are exploited as sex objects, breeders, domestic servants, and cheap labor by the male class(Bloom, Takin it to the Streets, 486). Many of the women characters in The Bell Jar and Enormous Changes at the Last Minute give us examples of this repression and exploitation. In both The Bell Jar and Enormous Changes at the Last Minute, we often see women as being subordinate to men. For†¦show more content†¦However, because of her role as servant, it is perfectly acceptable for her to perform this task. The final aspect of the exploitation of women is their use as cheap labor. In Distance, the main character works as an afternoon cashier. This is among the jobs that are acceptable for women. In The Bell Jar, Esther does not know shorthand, so she could be a waitress or a typist(Plath, 103). Again, we see women restricted to certain roles. All of these jobs earn a low wage, and all of them put the woman in the position of serving others. None of these jobs carries with it any authority. Jobs associated with authority are reserved for men. As the Redstockings said in their manifesto, women are considered inferior beings, whose only purpose is to enhance mens lives(Bloom, 486). As a class, men exploit them for personal use, both economically and sexually. They do everything they can to keep women in an inferior position. This repression is so pervasive that it is even found in the language of the women themselves. Correcting this problem is not a matter of changing individual relationships within the society. As the manifesto says, the conflicts between individual men and women are political conflicts that can only be solved collectively(486). In order for things to improve, there must be some change in society at a baseShow MoreRelatedBrand Building Blocks96400 Words   |  386 Pagesmultiple brands and products, describe the context of building brands today, a context that involves a growing level of complexity. The remaining reasons reflect internal pressures that inhibit brand building. The fifth reason, the temptation to change a sound brand strategy, is particularly insidious because it is the management equivalent of shooting yourself in the foot. The sixth and seventh reasons, the organizational bias against innovation and the pressure to invest elsewhere, are special

Friday, May 8, 2020

Why We Can t Wait By Martin Luther King, Jr. - 994 Words

In the narrative Why We Can’t Wait by Martin Luther King, Jr., published in 1964, King describes the struggles African Americans faced to receive equal rights. During the 1960s the Civil Rights movement was in full swing. The year 1963 is referred to as the beginning of the â€Å"Negro Revolution†. In the introduction of this narrative King compares the lives of two African American children. By using one child from Harlem, New York and one from Birmingham, Alabama, King explains how they faced similar battles of poverty with limited opportunities. This showed how this problem was a national problem and not one that was just confined to the South. King used descriptive examples to explain the Civil Rights movement throughout this narrative. The two major themes throughout Why We Can’t Wait are racial discrimination and the use of nonviolence. The â€Å"Negro Revolution† erupted in 1963 for many reasons. Racial discrimination was at its peak after the Supre me Court Case, Brown vs. Board, was rejected in 1954. Racial integration was progressing slowly and King wanted to change this. He expressed his strong belief in unity when he said, â€Å"Three hundred years of humiliation, abuse and deprivation cannot be expected to find voice in a whisper† (3). With the Pupil Placement Law making segregation a larger problem, King felt African Americans had been denied equality for too long. However, he planned to give them their path to freedom, with the idea in mind that with numbers comes strength.Show MoreRelatedWhy We Can t Wait By Martin Luther King Jr1254 Words   |  6 PagesIn Why We Can’t Wait by Martin Luther King Jr, Martin describes the weather and also implies that the civil rights movement were like the severe weather in 1962-63. He compared the harsh weather with the discrimination that black people were trying to overcome. In addition, black people were facing judgment, unfairness, poverty and lack of education. How ever, today black people often can get what they want and they come together and fight for their freedom and justice. Martin defines the year betweenRead MoreWhy We Can t Wait By Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.918 Words   |  4 Pages Why We Can’t Wait, a book by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., gives insight on the matters that occurred in Birmingham, 1963. Relation between the races have progressed since the sixties, but they could be better. This piece of literature should be read by all, if only to get a better understanding of history. Knowledge and ignorance, I feel, are key factors in what make relations between the races either good or bad. MLK gives great insight on the happenings in 1963 Birmingham, as well as the more overseenRead MoreComparing Martin Luther King And Malcolm X917 Words   |  4 Pagescontrast Martin Luther King and Malcolm X. Martin Luther King and Malcolm X were both civil rights leaders during the 1960s, but had different ideologies on how civil rights should be won. Both men were also deeply religious, but followed different religions and paths. The Great Depression never ended for African Americans; while others enjoyed an economic recovery, Black unemployment rose. Martin Luther King says that economic inequality in America became particularly obvious in 1963 (King, 23).Read MoreEssay Letter From Birmingham Jail1025 Words   |  5 PagesThe â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail† written by one of the key figures of the civil rights movement, Martin Luther King Jr., is one of the most powerful and influential writings in american history. The letter was written while he and fellow protestors were being held in custody for protesting in the city of Birmingham, Alabama. King was a very passionate and selfless man. He only had love in his heart for all living beings regardless of their race or religion. He believed in a peaceful way of protestRead MoreEssay on Dr. Martin Luther King Jr and The Civil Rights Movement2125 Words   |  9 PagesMartin Luther King jr. was one of the most influential persons of the 20th Century . He is the father of the modern civil rights movement, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., is recognized around the world as a symbol of freedom as well as peace. King practiced everything that he preached, he did not preach or speak values that he himself did not follow. He established himself as a pastor that was not afraid of hard work, guiding the middle-class congregation to public service. For example, Peake, ThomasRead MoreArgumentative Synthesis Letter from Birmingham Jail1535 Words   |  7 Pagesvision such as Rev. Dr. Luther King Jr. Kings letter from Birmingham reflects his opinion that peace and non-violence were vital in achieving desegregation and important human rights for African Americans throughout the nation during the 1960’s. The â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail† was an appeal to the general African American population to lay down their weapons and rest their spite filled minds. He uses pleas to emotions, logic and to history in order to portray his vision. King famously preached toRead MoreThe Letter From Birmingham Jail 1321 Words   |  6 Pagesyou have seen hate-filled policemen curse, kick and even kill your black brothers and sister† (King). Children ripped apart from their families, not being able to socialize with certain people, or even go to the local amusement park. It was a hard time to be a colored person, and there was one hope. Martin Luther King, Jr. believed that one day blacks and whites could one day come together peacefully. King tried to do what he believed was right with everything in his will to finally join forces andRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement : Martin Luther King Jr.1305 Words   |  6 Pagesother minorities in the country. Martin Luther King Jr. was one of the most famous civil rights activists that ever lived. In 1963, King delivered a letter he wrote in Birmingham City Jail due to nonviolent resistance participation which was unapproved by a group of white clergymen. In this letter, King addresses these clergymen’s critics about the demonstrations being unwise and untimely, and saying that the participants of such were outsiders coming in. King points out how whites are disturbedRead MoreThe Rhetorical Triangle : Ethos, Pathos, Logos1696 Words   |  7 Pagesability to convince and address his or her audience using three different areas that form the Rhetorical Triangle: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos. The strongest area of the Triangle based off the letter from Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King Jr in one’s opinion is Pathos. Although King uses all three repeatedly in his letter, Pathos is the most expressed area throughout this letter. Through his use of ethos in the way of fairness yet with authority to his audience, logos through facts and statistic, itRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr., â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail†3011 Words   |  13 Pages[Subject] [Date] Martin Luther king Jr., â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail† Outline 1. Introduction i) Argument about â€Å"Justice and injustice† ii) Religious appeals in King’s latter iii) Paragraph fourteen of King’s latter 2. Discussion 3. Conclusion Introduction The pressure of racial segregation was reaching a boiling point in 1963 in Birmingham, Alabama. After being arrested for his part in the Birmingham Campaign, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. wrote an open letter

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

World War Ii the American Experience Free Essays

string(45) " fortifying a village along the beach front\." World War II: The American Experience HIS120 Date World War II: The American Experience It is no known secret that America attempted to reframe from becoming a part of what was projected as being a major war which started with the European culture. Historians believe that the second war was a contribution of the Great Depression which caused for America to seize from their investments in Europe. This caused for a struggle of power in Europe which provide an opportunity for Hitler and Stalin to obtain control over Europe. We will write a custom essay sample on World War Ii the American Experience or any similar topic only for you Order Now However receiving control over Britain would become a challenge. The prime minister at that time knew in order to survive he would need an alliance; the United States. With Germany, Italy, and Japan seizing majority of Europe, President Roosevelt agreed to support Britain in the war in order to promote the â€Å"Four Freedoms: freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom for want, and freedom for fear† (Schultz, 2012). With the booming of Pearl Harbor on December 7, President Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war. Once war was declared and with Hitler also declaring war on the United States; this became the beginning of World War II. North African Campaign Figure 1. Allied Operations in World War II, 1942-1945 American troops entered into North Africa in late 1943. The North African Campaign, better known as the Desert War, took place in North African desert which surrounded those areas of Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and the Western Sahara (United States History, 2012). After the Axis (name given for the Germane, Italian, and Japanese) were defected in France, Northern Africa became the focus of conquering. It is stated that the North African Campaign was fought for not only one reason but for two reasons. The Suez Canal was the first objective to gain control over for the reason that the Suez Canal will be the source of controlling the Middle East. The second objective for the North African Campaign was the Middle East oil supply and resources. Egypt was a main focus due to the location in which was at the center of the Eastern Mediterranean, Abyssinia, and the Middle East (United States History, 2012). Operation torch was lead by General Bernard Montgomery. During operation torch, British troops were in Egypt fighting the Germany’s while American troops launched an invasion of French North Africa (United States History, 2012). The objective for operation torch was to gain control of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia which were all under the French dictatorship. By having control, the Allies (Britain, Soviet Union, and the United States) wanted to push the Axis out of Africa. The Allies were successful. â€Å"On May 12, 1943, the last organized Axis army force in Africa surrendered. The Allies had killed, wounded, or captured about 350,000 Axis soldiers, and had suffered about 70,000 casualties. After the victory in the North African Campaign, the stage was set for the Italian Campaign to begin† (United States History, 2012). Italian Campaign Figure 2. The Pacific and Adjacent Theaters, 1942-1945 At the Casablanca Conference held in Casablanca, Morocco in January 1943; the decision was made to invade Italy. The Allies had their first war conference to discuss the invasion. This launched the Italian Campaign which placed Allied soldiers on the mainland in Europe. The Italian Campaign consisted of five objectives: to â€Å"capitalize on the collapse of Italian resistance, make immediate use of ready Allied strength, engage German forces that might otherwise be used in Russia and northern France, secure airfields from which to intensify the bombing of Germany and the Balkans, and gain complete control of the Mediterranean† (United States History, 2012). D-Day; Normandy landings was the Operation Husky. During this operation, Allies landed on the beaches while leading the Germans to thinking that they would attack Sardinia and Corsica. Due to the bombing in Rome, the head of the government king Mussolini was forced to resign from his position. At that time, the Italians wanted to withdraw from the war with Japan and Russia. Operation Husky wanted to completely eliminate Italy from the war. By the end of the Italian Campaign, the war against Germany reallocated to France. â€Å"In the spring of 1945 Allied forces penetrated the final German defensive line to enter the fertile plains of the Po River Valley. On May 2, the Germans in Italy surrendered† (United States History, 2012). Japanese American, Infantry men of the 442nd Regiment, runs for cover as a German artillery shell is about to land outside the building. Levine, Italy. April 4, 1945. Normandy Campaign The objectives of the Allies were during the invasion of Normandy was eliminate all of the Germans capabilities of trying to organize a counterattack during the Allies amphibious assault. The Allies used their airborne capabilities to seize significant objectives like bridges, road crossings and terrain area’s mainly on the eastern and western flanks. The Allies also used their airborne infantry to land behind enemy forces on the beaches of Normandy to help egress the amphibious forces and also neutralize and destroy the Germans coastal defenses batteries. Sword beach was invaded by the British infantry, we the infantry made it ashore they were met with light resistance and the suffered minimal casualties. They had advanced five miles inland by the end of the first day of battle, but they did not meet their major objectives such as Caen which was still in possession of the Germans. Juno beach was invaded by the Canadian army; they were met with heavy German resistance upon landing ashore in Normandy. There were by heavy machine gun fire, pill boxes, and other major concrete fortifications that the German army had set up. Juno beach was the second heaviest outpost guarded by the Germans. The Canadian Army was the only unit to reach all of their objectives on D-Day. Gold beach was invaded by the 50th (Northumbrian) infantry division; they were also met with stiff German resistance due to the Germans fortifying a village along the beach front. You read "World War Ii the American Experience" in category "Papers" However, the 50th infantry divisions were able to overcome Germans and were able to proceed to outskirts of Bayeux by the end of the first day. The 50th infantry division then linked with Allied commando units who were securing the Port-en-Bessin. This gave the Allies a base that they could deploy the PLUTO pipeline. Omaha beach was invaded by the American allies; they met fierce resistance from the German 352nd Infantry Division who were Germany’s best trained force for defending the beaches and coastal areas. Omaha beach was so well fortified by the Germans that the Americans missed most of their landing objectives. However, after battling the Germans for three days the American allies were able to penetrate the Germans fortifications and move forward. Utah beach was invaded by the 4th infantry division; they were met with very little German resistance and were able to move further inland by the late afternoon where they linked up the 101st airborne division. After the beaches were secured allied forces were able to set up the Mulberry Harbors, which allowed supplies and reinforcements to come ashore to support allied forces. Victory in Normandy was followed by a pursuit to the French border in short order, and Germany was forced once again to reinforce the Western Front with manpower and resources from the Soviet and Italian fronts. By September, Allied forces of seven field armies (two of which came through southern France in Operation Dragoon) were approaching the German frontier. Allied material weight told heavily in Normandy, as did intelligence and deception plans. The general Allied concept of the battle was sound, drawing on the strengths of both Britain and the United States. German dispositions and leadership were often faulty, despite a creditable showing on the ground by many German units. In larger context the Normandy landings helped the Soviets on the Eastern front, who were facing the bulk of the German forces and, to a certain extent, contributed to the shortening of the conflict there. War in Europe The Battle of Atlantic was a battle that began with Great Britain declaring war on the Germans in September of 1939. The battle of the Atlantic brought about significant changes and creative inventions to the allies military. This was a major reason that allied forces were able to defeat the Germans in the Battle of Atlantic. The Battle of the Atlantic cost thousands of soldiers their lives and thousands of Navy ships were destroyed as well. During World War II allied forces conducted strategic bombing missions against the German’s. Allied forces would bomb railways, harbors, industrial places, and cities. As World War II begins to intensify, allied forces began to conduct numerous bombing missions. Allied forces bombed city believes that it was physiological warfare and they believe it would break the enemy’s will to continue fighting. The Majdanek concentration camp was located in Eastern Poland and was the first concentration camp that was liberate by the soviets in July of 1944. Before the Soviets were able to liberate the Majdanek concentration camp the German Nazi’s had killed between 90,000 and 140,000 prisoners. Majdanek concentration camp was initially a Prisoner of War camp that housed Russian Prisoners of War, but the camp soon turned towards a concentration camp for the Jews. It is estimated that 60,000 Jews were killed during the camps operation. In July of 1944 the soviets advanced on the Majdanek concentration so fast that the German Nazi’s were not able to conceal the evidence of the torture and killings they had committed. Liberation of Paris America was in war on two fronts, the war against Japan, and the war against Germany. The beginning of the conflict started with Paris started with Britain and Germany over a blockade that was preventing America to trade with either country. America had signed a treaty to stay out of the conflicts with foreign countries. America was drawn into the conflict when Germany decided to launch a full scale war with against Britain and France (Schultz, â€Å"World War II,† 2012). Paris had been invaded by the Germans, causing stress, killings, and havoc to the residents until D-Day, a code name for Destination Day, when America and France liberated Paris and broke the Strong hold of Germany and freed Paris (â€Å"Weider History Group†, 2006). Operation Market Garden was a strategic military maneuver plan in September 1944 to be carried out by planning to attack the Germans from the north, south, across the Rhine River, and west of Normandy along with an air attack. This plan failed due to conflict in order on when to strike and bad weather (Macdonald, n. d). The Germans strategy was if they could take control of smaller section of a country like Belgium, they would eventually take control of the country entirely. The Battle of the Bulge was one of the largest battles to take place on the west front. They lost the battle because they were spread too thin and was unsuccessful in knocking out the power in Bastogne, Belgium (Schultz, â€Å"World War II,† 2012). During the time of war the three allied forces, Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt was under great concern of the condition Poland would be in as they draw near their victory of the World War in January 1945. The Soviet Union, United States, who sided with Great Britain, was at odds with each other over Poland of which Soviet Union occupied. The Soviet Union wants to serve as a buffer for Poland whiles the United States and Britain wand Poland to be more independent. The Soviet Union proposal was more favorable and resulted in the Yalta Agreement. Churchill was in disagreement with the decision and the Soviet and Britain ended up in a Cold War (Schultz, â€Å"World War II,† 2012). While at the conference meeting in Yalta, Churchill and his ally, Roosevelt was planning an attack on Dresden, a city outside of Berlin. This city was a city of refuge that had no military stations of weapons. It only was a place that had hospitals and house to care for the wounded from the military. The people fled to the city seeking refuge from the Red terror of the war. Many of them were Jews, men women and children. The total death from the bombing is really unknown but is to be said to be over 600,000 (â€Å"The WWII Dresden Holocaust – A single Column of Flame†, n. . ). During the time of all the events that took place in Germany and World War II, it finally broke the back and the strong hold that Hitler had over Germany. At the end of the Holocaust of Dresden and the slaughter of Jews from the concentration camps of which 30,000 were killed, giving an estimated death toll of 600,000 men, women, and children. Hitler was known to have committed suicide in April 30 , 1945, given victory over Germany, known as of today called V- E Day, â€Å"Victory in Europe Day (Schultz, â€Å"World War II,† 2012). War in the Pacific The United States was holding a war on two fronts, the war in Germany with Britain and France against Germany, and the war against Japan. The Great Depression was perhaps the cause of both wars. With the Stock market crashing and the fall of the economy, America and some of the countries it served and served it was becoming financially ruin and was fighting to stay in power. Each country feeling its own power was trying to make sure that they were not going to be taken advantage of (Schultz, â€Å"World War II,† 2012). America had a strong presence in the Pacific and Japan did not want them there. They were fighting over who would control Hawaii. Japan also wants to take control of all Asia and China. During the time of World War II, Hong Kong was a part of Britain territory. MacArthur and Nimitz are two officers that have great similarities in helping turn the war to the benefit of America. Douglas MacArthur was a General in the U. S Army and Admirable Chester Nimitz was an officer in the United States Navy who had different styles of leadership that worked together to regain control of land and water in the Pacific War. Gen. MacArthur took control of the Philippines and Adm. Nimitz gain control of the Pacific. Churchill and Roosevelt were winning the war. Along with the best two commanders, they began to use a strategy to keep Japan from getting a foothold by sending troops to take over small islands and maintaining control and at the same time pushing the Japanese back while earning the name Island Hoppers (Schultz, â€Å"World War II,† 2012). References Center of Military History. (1992). A Brief History of the U. S. Army. Retrieved from http://www. ibiblio. org/hyperwar/USA/USA-C-WWII/index. tml Schultz, K. M. (2012). HIST2, Volume 2 (2nd Ed. ). Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. The WWII Dresden Holocaust – A Single Column of Flame. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://rense. com/general19/flame. htm Weider History Group. (2006). Retrieved from http://www. historynet. com/world-war-ii-the-liberation-of-paris. htm United States History. (2012). Italian Campaign. Retrieved from http://www. u-s-history. com/pages/h1742. html United States History. (2012). North African Campaign. Retrieved from http://www. u-s-history. com/pages/h1727. html How to cite World War Ii the American Experience, Essays

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Tale Of 2 Cities Essays - Literature, English-language Films, Film

Tale Of 2 Cities "A Tale of Two Cities" is written by Charles Dickens and it takes place in France and England during the troubled times of the French Revolution. The characters travels to both country but most of the story happens in Paris, France. The hot spot of the French revolutionists, mostly takes place in a wineshop in Paris, because the wineshop owner is Ernest Defarge and his wife, Madame Defarge are the key leaders and officials of the revolution. The action in the book takes place in many parts of Paris, such as the Bastille, Tellson?s Bank, the home of the Manettes and largely in the streets of Paris. This places help introduce many characters into the story. One of the main characters, Madame Theresa Defrage, is a major antagonist who seeks revenge. She is a very tense and unforgiving woman who seeks revenge on the Evermonde family. Through out the story, she weave shrouds for the intended victims of the revolution. Charles Darnay, one of whom Mrs. Defarge is seeking revenge, is constantly being put on the stand and wants no part of his own lineage. He is languid protagonist and has a tendency to get arrested and must be bailed out several times during the story. Dr. Alexander Manette, a veteran prisoner of the Bastille and moderate protagonist, cannot escape the memory of being held and sometimes fall back to cobbling shoes, he plays a very significant part in the story. His daughter , Lucie Manette, a positive protagonist, is loved by many and marries Charles Darnay. She is a quiet, emotional person and discriminating protagonist in the story. One who never forgot the love of Lucie, was Sydney Carton, who starts off as a frustrated, immature alcoholic, but in the end, he made the ultimate sacrifice for a good friend. This are the characters that gives the interesting and dramatic plot to the story. Carton was deeply in love with Lucie and is always telling her that he loves her so much that he would do anything for her but Lucie ends up marring Darnay, a few days after their marriage when they were on their honeymoon, Dr. Manette has a fall back and cobbles shoes for nine straight days. France?s citizens arm themselves for a revolutoin led by the Defarges and starts the revolution by riding to Bastille. Shortly before they start the revolution, the Marquis runs over a child in the street of Paris. The child?s father, Gaspard who is part of the revolution murders Marquis. Three years later Darnay is called back to Paris to help his friend Gabelle, when Darnay was walking on the street of Paris he got arrested for being an enemy of the country. Lucie and her father Dr. Manette goes to Paris to see if they can be of any help to Darnay. Darnay is release from prison but the same day he is re-arrested on charges set forth by the Defrages and one other unknown person. The next day Darnay sent to trial and is convicted and sentence to death. Here is when the heroe comes and with spy contacts finds out in which prison he is encarcelated, he goes and drugs Darnay, while Darnay was drug, Carton switches place with Darnay. Lucie, Charles Darnay and their daughter leaves Paris safely while Sydney Carton makes his final sacrifice and is taking to the guillotine in place of Darnay. Summary of the Standard Historical Source The French Revolution is a cataclysmic political and social upheaval, extending from 1789 to1799. The revolution resulted, among other things, in the overthrow of the Bourdon monarchy in France and in the establishment of the First Republic. It was generated by a vast complex of causes, the most important of which were the inability of the ruling classes of nobility, divine, and bourgeoisie to come to grips with the problems of the state, the indecisive nature of the monarch, extortionate taxation of the peasantry. Another cause was the accession of Louis XVI in 1774 which lasted for a century, the French government had undergone periodic economic crises, resulting from the long wars waged during the reign of Louis XIV. The rebellion continued the challenge of royal decrees and the mutinous mood of the royal army forced the king to capitulate. On June 27 he ordered the refractory nobility and clergy to join the unicameral legislature, which then designated itself the National Constituent Assembly. Yielding to pressure from the queen and the d?Artois. At the same time, Necker, the popular apostle

Friday, March 20, 2020

Sucheng Chan essays

Sucheng Chan essays Sucheng Chan, the author of  ¡Asian Americans, an Interpretive History ¡, is currently a professor of history and is also the chair of the Asian American Studies Program at the University of California, Santa Barbara. In 1973, she earned her Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley. Not only a scholar and a professor, Chan is also an author. Her extraordinary work as a professor and a writer helped her win in prestigious awards in the literary community, such as the 1986 Theodore Salutoes Memorial Book Award in Agricultural History, the 1987 American Historical Association Pacific Coast Branch Book Award, and the 1988 Association for Asian American Studies Outstanding Book Award. Another award Chan has received in recognition of her academic work is a Distinguished Teaching Award from the University of California at Berkeley in 1978. With so many years of experience, Chan, in my opinion, satisfied the scholarly qualifications for my writing about her book. The book  ¡Asian Americans, an Interpretive History ¡ starts with the very beginning of time when the people from China, Japan, Korea, Philippines, and India first immigrated to the United States. Throughout this book, Chan talks about the accomplishments and struggles of the Asian Americans from the mid nineteenth century to the late twentieth century. Chan ¡s main focus or main emphasis is the impact Asian Americans have on the history of the United States, whether it is political, agricultural, or economical. Furthermore, despite the endless struggles Asian Americans had in the past, Chan also mentions the improvement of the status of Asian Americans over the past few decades and the decrease of racial inequality in this country. However, she ends with the intention of urging everyone, regardless of his/her race, gender, or ethnicity, to work steadfastly towards the curtailment of the racial tensions. ...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Definitions of Indexes and Scales in Research

Definitions of Indexes and Scales in Research Indexes and scales are important and useful tools in social science research. They have both similarities and differences among them. An index is a way of compiling one score from a variety of questions or statements that represents a belief, feeling, or attitude. Scales, on the other hand, measure levels of intensity at the variable level, like how much a person agrees or disagrees with a particular statement. If you are conducting a social science research project, chances are good that you will encounter indexes and scales. If you are creating your own survey or using secondary data from another researcher’s survey, indexes and scales are almost guaranteed to be included in the data. Indexes in Research Indexes are very useful in quantitative social science research because they provide a researcher a way to create a  composite measure  that summarizes responses for multiple rank-ordered related questions or statements. In doing so, this composite measure gives the researcher data about a research participants view on a certain belief, attitude, or experience. For example, let’s say a researcher is  interested in measuring job satisfaction and one of the key variables is job-related depression. This might be difficult to measure with simply one question. Instead, the researcher can create several different questions that deal with job-related depression and create an index of the included variables. To do this, one could use four questions to measure job-related depression, each with the response choices of yes or no: When I think about myself and my job, I feel downhearted and blue.When I’m at work, I often get tired for no reason.When I’m at work, I often find myself restless and can’t keep still.When at work, I am more irritable than usual. To create an  index of job-related depression, the researcher would simply add up the number of yes responses for the four questions above. For example, if a respondent answered yes to three of the four questions, his or her index score would be three, meaning that job-related depression is high. If a respondent answered no to all four questions, his or her job-related depression score would be 0, indicating that he or she is not depressed in relation to work. Scales in Research A scale is a type of composite measure that is composed of several items that have a logical or empirical structure among them. In other words, scales take advantage of differences in intensity among the indicators of a variable. The most commonly used scale is the Likert scale, which contains response categories such as strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree. Other scales used in social science research include the Thurstone scale, Guttman scale, Bogardus social distance scale, and the semantic differential scale. For example, a researcher interested in measuring prejudice against women could use a Likert scale to do so. The researcher would first create a series of statements reflecting prejudiced ideas, each with the response categories of strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, and strongly disagree. One of the items might be women shouldn’t be allowed to vote, while another might be women can’t drive as well as men. We would then assign each of the response categories a score of 0 to 4 (0 for strongly disagree, 1 for disagree, 2 for neither agree or disagree, etc.). The scores for each of the statements would then be added for each respondent to create an overall score of prejudice. If a respondent answered strongly agree to five statements expressing prejudiced ideas, his or her overall prejudice score would be 20, indicating a very high degree of prejudice against women. Compare and Contrast Scales and indexes have several similarities. First, they are both ordinal measures of variables. That is, they both rank-order the units of analysis in terms of specific variables. For example, a person’s score on either a scale or index of religiosity gives an indication of his or her religiosity relative to other people. Both scales and indexes are composite measures of variables, meaning that the measurements are based on more than one data item. For instance, a person’s IQ score is determined by his or her responses to many test questions, not simply one question. Even though scales and indexes are similar in many ways, they also have several differences. First, they are constructed differently. An index is constructed simply by accumulating the scores assigned to individual items. For example, we might measure religiosity by adding up the number of religious events the respondent engages in during an average  month. A scale, on the other hand, is constructed by assigning scores to patterns of responses with the idea that some items suggest a weak degree of the variable while other items reflect stronger degrees of the variable. For example, if we are constructing a scale of political activism, we might score running for office higher than simply voting in the last election. Contributing money to a political campaign and working on a political campaign would likely score in between. We would then add up the scores for each individual based on how many items they participated in and then assign them an overall score for the scale. Updated by Nicki Lisa Cole, Ph.D.